The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.[22]. Stone. The Methodist Church used circuit riders to reach people in frontier locations. Home Menu Toggle; second great awakening leaders [24]:368 While the leaders of one of the two primary groups making up this movement, Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell, resisted what they saw as the spiritual manipulation of the camp meetings, the revivals contributed to the development of the other major branch, led by Barton W. Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1750s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s. Lyman Beecher was a Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader, and the father of several noted leaders, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, and Catharine Beecher, and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of … The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform and an emphasis on salvation by institutions. As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists. Johnson, Charles A. These often provided the first encounter for some settlers with organized religion, and they were important as social venues. Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, Elizabeth J.Clapp, and Julie Roy Jeffrey, ed., Women, Dissent and Anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790–1865, (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 13–14, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in Clio's Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. [41] The influence of the Awakening continued in the form of more secular movements. [42] In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians began progressive movements to reform society during this period. Daniel Walker Howe, "The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture in the North During the Second Party System", The Journal of American History 77, no. Leaders such as Charles Finney saw women's public prayer as a crucial aspect in preparing a community for revival and improving their efficacy in conversion. Whitefield ignited the Great Awakening, a major religious revival that became the first major mass movement in American history. 268,882 Pages. [25], Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory of the northern tier. 5.0 3 votes 3 votes Rate! Pietism was sweeping Germanic countries[4] and evangelicalism was waxing strong in England.[5]. Religion. Beecher married three times, after becoming a widower twice, and fathered 13 children. [18] Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement, which consisted of non-denominational churches committed to what they viewed as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Great_Awakening&oldid=6896292, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. He had 13 children, many of whom became notable people, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Catharine Beecher … He was also a co-founder of the American Temperance Society. "[7] During the Second Great Awakening of the 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a few years. Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. Postmillennialist theology dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 19th century. All seven of his sons, including Henry Ward Beecher, followed their father into the ministry. The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution. A primitive faith based on the Bible alone promised a way to sidestep the competing claims of the many denominations available and for congregations to find assurance of being right without the security of an established national church. It impacts race and religion and sex and gender. It was amid these circumstances that Lyman Beecher stood before his congregation in Litchfield , Connecticut, to deliver a series of sermons on the nature and dangers of intemperance. (B) more reliant on women as members and social reformers. [12], The denominations that encouraged the revivals were based on an interpretation of man's spiritual equality before God, which led them to recruit members and preachers from a wide range of classes and all races. Henry Ward Beecher, (born June 24, 1813, Litchfield, Conn., U.S.—died March 8, 1887, Brooklyn, N.Y.), liberal U.S. Congregational minister whose oratorical skill and social concern made him one of the most influential Protestant spokesmen of his time.. Beecher's Bibles Beecher City, Illinois Harriet Beecher Stowe House (Ohio) Second Great Awakening. It is not clear why women converted in larger numbers than men. He was the eighth of the Rev. The outpouring of religious fervor and revival began in Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1790s and early 1800s among the Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, Edward Everett and Joseph Smith. Newer denominations, such as Methodists and Baptists, grew quickly. They moved to Lawrenceburg, Indiana, where Beecher had a job as a minister. The people of the Second Great Awakening thought they could bring about a Golden Age in America through religion. [16][17] Presbyterians and Methodists initially worked together to host the early camp meetings, but the Presbyterians eventually became less involved because of the noise and often raucous activities that occurred during the protracted sessions. To a lesser extent the Presbyterians also gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas. Search Sign In Don't have an account? It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, E dward Everett and Joseph Smith. Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, and slaves were converted. Mathews, Donald G. "The Second Great Awakening as an organizing process, 1780–1830: An hypothesis". Like the First Great Awakening a half century earlier, the Second Great Awakening in North America reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the supernatural. This differed from the Calvinists' belief in predestination as outlined in the Westminster Confession of Faith, which emphasized the inability of men to save themselves and decreed that the only way to be saved was by God's electing grace. People such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and William Lloyd Garrison wrote books and newspapers about how slavery should stop. [36], The greatest change in women's roles stemmed from participation in newly formalized missionary and reform societies. The Disestablishment of Religion and Lyman Beecher (he is a good example of the Great Awakening) One of the issues coming out of the Revolution is, what do we do … [7], In the early days of the nineteenth century, western New York State was called the "burned-over district" because of the highly publicized revivals that crisscrossed the region. Rate it: Every artist dips his brush in his own soul, and paints his own nature into his pictures. Especially in the Baptist Church, African Americans were welcomed as members and as preachers. Beecher was influential in the Second Great Awakening, along with Charles Finney, Barton Stone and Peter Cartwright. Beecher was influential in the Second Great Awakening, along with Charles Finney, Barton Stone and Peter Cartwright. [35] Women also took crucial roles in the conversion and religious upbringing of children. 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